Biosafety, in medicine and health care settings, specifically refers to proper handling of organs or tissues from biological origin, or genetic therapy products, viruses with respect to the environment, to ensure the safety of health care workers, researchers, lab staff, patients, and the general public.
According to statistics, the probability of laboratory infections for staff engaged in pathogenic microorganism research is 5 to 7 times higher than that of the general population. Laboratory infections will not only harm the health of laboratory workers, but also has an adverse impact on their departments, and can even cause the prevalence of diseases, endangering the health and life safety of the masses, and even hindering the development of social economy and the construction of a harmonious society, resulting in serious consequences.
- In 1886, Guo Huo reported a laboratory infection of cholera for the first time.
- In 1951, the United States counted 1,342 laboratory infections, involving 69 different microorganisms.
- In 1967, the Marburg virus laboratory infection incident in Germany, 37 people were infected, and a quarter died.
- In April 1979, a leak occurred in a laboratory in the former Soviet Union. The leaked anthrax spore powder and a large amount of poisonous fog released from the explosion caused more than 1,000 people to become ill and hundreds of people died.
- In 1993, the CDC in the United States reported that 17 laboratory personnel were infected with HIV due to occupational exposure.
- Laboratory infections caused by SARS coronavirus: In 2003, a Taiwanese researcher was infected in the BSL-4 laboratory; in 2003, a postdoctoral student in Singapore was infected in the laboratory; in 2004, a national-level viral disease research institution in Beijing, a graduate student of Anhui Medical University was infected.
Source of biohazard
- Various pathogenic microorganisms derived from humans and animals
Such as: plague; cholera; SARS; mad cow disease; avian influenza.
- Invasion from foreign organisms
Exotic organisms that did not exist in our country are pathogenic factors that cause diseases and insect pests of humans, crops, and livestock, such as the American white moth.
- Possible potential hazards from genetically modified organisms
In 1998, a study found that the immune system of mice was damaged after eating genetically modified potatoes, and the biosafety evaluation of genetically modified organisms has become the focus of increasing attention.
- From a bioterrorism incident
Infections and deaths caused by Bacillus anthracis in the United States after September 11, 2001.
Types of laboratory infections
- Laboratory infections caused by aerosols: pathogenic microorganisms in the laboratory can be dispersed in the air in the form of aerosols, and workers inhale the polluted air and cause infections.
- Accidental infection: The negligence of laboratory personnel causes the pathogenic microorganisms that would otherwise not be in contact to contaminate the environment, directly or indirectly infecting laboratory personnel.
- Man-made destruction: intentionally spreading biological agents.
Sources of laboratory infections
1. Test specimens: laboratory specimens; clinical specimens.
2. Bacteria and virus species: Class I; Class II; Class III; Class IV.
(2) Pollution generated during the use of equipment
1. Centrifuge: Aerosols, splashes, and centrifuge tube leaks that may cause laboratory infections.
2. Tissue homogenizers, pulverizers, and grinders: aerosols, leaks, and broken containers may cause laboratory infections.
3. Ultrasonic equipment: aerosol.
4. Vacuum freeze dryer and centrifugal concentrator: aerosol; direct contact with pollution.
5. Cultivation stirrers, shakers and mixers: aerosols; splashes; spills.
6. Constant temperature water bath and constant temperature oscillating water bath: microbial generation; aerosol
7. Anaerobic tank: bursts and spreads infectious materials.
8. Drying tank: implosion, spreading infectious materials.
9. Cryostat: Spatter.
Pollution during experimental operation
- Mix well
- Biological safety: refers to comprehensive measures to prevent and treat the harm of microorganisms and their toxins to the human body.
- Laboratory biosafety:
A: Refers to comprehensive measures to avoid exposure of hazardous biological factors to laboratory personnel, spreading out of the laboratory and causing harm when the laboratory is used as a place for scientific research and work.
B: That is, when the experimental objects handled by laboratory staff contain pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins, they should be designed and constructed through the laboratory (secondary barrier), use personal protective equipment (primary barrier), and strictly comply with standardized work Comprehensive measures such as operating procedures: (1) Ensure that laboratory staff are not infested by experimental objects. (2) Ensure that the surrounding environment is not polluted by it.
Related factors affecting biosafety
- Biohazardous Agents
Refers to those biological factors that can cause harm to people, the environment and society, such as pathogenic microorganisms, toxins and allergens from higher animals and plants, toxins and allergens from microbial metabolites, genetic structure organisms, etc.
- Hazardous Waste
All wastes that are potentially biologically hazardous, combustible, flammable, corrosive, toxic, radioactive, and destructive to humans and the environment.
A relatively stable dispersion system formed by small solid or liquid particles suspended in a gas medium (the particle size is generally 0.001-10μm)
Microbial aerosol: Microorganisms in the particles
Infectious aerosol: The microparticles contain pathogenic microorganisms.
Droplet: Aerosols with saliva, mucus and microorganisms as the main components are produced by animals’ sneezing, coughing, and calling.
Droplet core: When the water in the droplet evaporates, the remaining mucus protein and microorganisms. More than 90% of droplets have a diameter of less than 5μm, and the droplet core is generally 1~2μm in diameter. All of them can float in the air for a long time, which is an important way to cause animal diseases to spread.
- Buffer room: The buffer room is set between the clean area, the semi-contaminated area and the adjacent contaminated area. It has a ventilation system. Its two doors have interlocking function and cannot be opened at the same time.
- Biological safety cabinet (BSC): It is an extremely important equipment in a biological safety laboratory. Its main principle is to maintain negative pressure in the safety cabinet. Airflow can only enter the safety cabinet from the outside to make the pathogens in the cabinet Microorganisms not able to overflow, thereby protecting the staff; at the same time, the circulating air and exhaust air passing through high efficiency filter filtration, can protect the environment.
- Personal protective equipment (PPE): The general term for various items worn and equipped with people to defend against various harmful factors in the process of scientific research activities in the laboratory.
With an extensive track record of safety, reliability and performance, HFsafe LC cabinets make ideal investments for a wide range of applications including work with infectious agents that require Biosafety Level 1, 2 or 3 containment.
- Patented Flow-saFe system automatically balances the downflow and inflow velocities to maintain user and sample protection.
- You can keep a constant check on the airflow, window position etc.- anytime, anywhere.
- When the front sash is closed, our intelligent speed control automatically reduces flow speed.
- Negative-pressure, dual side walls prevent the possibility of contamination from leaks to the exterior environment.
Enhanced comfort and convenience
- 10 ° backward-slanted safety grade glass provides protection with more comfortable viewing than vertical sashes.
- Counterbalanced sliding sash can be raised to a maximum height for easy introduction of large items.
- The radiused edge prevents the potentially dangerous practice of placing materials in this area.
- Constructed of seamless, non-porous, autoclavable Type 304 stainless steel for working plate, one-piece side/rear walls.
- Programmable UV light timer simplifies operation while extending life time
- Powerful UV irradiation ensures thorough disinfection of the complete chamber.
- UV lamp with interlocking safety switch function is designed for your safety.
- Unique hidden UV lamp protects operator’ s eyes from hurt.
Easy to Clean
- The cabinet work zone has no welded joints to collect contaminants or rust.
- Details of cabinet developed further to ensure easier cleaning with normal cleaning solvents
- Airflow laminator protects the filter surface during wipe cleaning.
- Optional multiple piece stainless steel work surface is easier to remove and put into autoclave / washer.
- Bottom sink is made of stainless steel type 304 with round corners and draining valves
How to set a new bechmark for the whole industry?
- Supply and exhaust filters provide 99.999% typical efficiency for particle size of 0.1 to 0.2 microns, providing superior product protection over conventional HEPA filters.
- German made ebm-papst motors selected for energy efficiency, compact design, and flat profile.
- Temperature-compensated airflow sensors monitor the airflow constantly to ensure safe operating conditions are maintained.
- Two independent sensors (downflow/exhaust airflow) mean double security.
- LCD is mounted at eye level for at-a-glance viewing of airflow, operating parameters, and alarm messages.
- The intuitive interface delivers a constant read-out of working area temperature, air velocity/volume, filter life span, total running time.
- Patented filter life indicator is designed to measure filter life according to actual condition of membrane.