Infection Control

Infection control prevents or stops the spread of infections in healthcare settings.CSSD is the abbreviation of the Central Sterile Supply Department. The objective of establishing a Central Sterile Supply Department is to make reliably sterilized articles available at the required time and place for any agreed purpose in the Hospital as economically as possible.

Why to do Infection Control?

  • There are patients with various diseases in the hospital, and their immune defense functions have varying degrees of damage and defects.
  • During the hospitalization of the patient, due to various diagnosis and treatment measures, such as tracheal intubation, urinary tract intubation, endoscopy, major surgery and radiotherapy, chemotherapy, etc., different degrees of injury and reduced the patient’s immune function .
  • In addition to the dense population in the hospital, patients with various infectious diseases may discharge pathogens into the hospital environment at any time. As a result, the air in the hospital was severely polluted and became a place for microorganisms to gather. Bacteria, viruses, fungi and other microorganisms can exist in the air, surface of objects, appliances, equipment, etc. in hospitals.

In this way, all kinds of patients with low resistance are at risk of nosocomial infection when they move in an environment where microorganisms are concentrated.

Infection Accident

In 1998, Shenzhen Women’s and Children’s Hospital had an outbreak of mycobacterial infection in surgical incisions, and 46 people claimed 20 million yuan.
In 2003, Qingshuihe Hospital in Inner Mongolia, illegal blood sampling caused 13 people to be infected with HIV.
In 2005, 10 patients with cataract surgery in Suzhou, Anhui, 9 patients with iatrogenic infections had their right eyeballs removed.
In 2008, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, 8 newborns died of infection.
In 2009, 20 people on hemodialysis in Shanxi Coal Hospital were infected with hepatitis C, and 19 people on hemodialysis in Huoshan, Anhui were infected with nosocomial hemodialysis.
In 2009, 18 cesarean incision infections in Gurao Overseas Chinese Hospital, Shantou, Guangdong.
2010, Beijing Pinggu Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, female patient died of lung infection.

The harm of nosocomial infection

The harm of nosocomial infection is not only manifested in increasing patient morbidity and fatality rate, increasing patient suffering and workload of medical staff, reducing hospital bed turnover rate, but also causing significant economic losses to patients and society.
It is reported that the additional fatality rate caused by nosocomial infection is 4% to 33%, and the highest fatality rate is HAP. Research in Argentina showed that UTI, catheter-associated BSI (CA-BSI) bloodstream infection, and VAP increased the fatality rate by 5%, 25%, and 35%, respectively. It is also reported that there are more than 2 million hospital infections in the United States each year, causing an additional cost of 4 billion U.S. dollars and 80,000 deaths; the United Kingdom is estimated to have 100,000 hospital infections each year, causing 5000 deaths and an additional expenditure of 1.6 billion euros. Refers to direct losses.
Studies in developed countries have shown that the additional cost of each hospital infection is 1,000 to 4,500 U.S. dollars (average 1,800 U.S. dollars), but in the pediatric ward, especially the neonatal ward, the additional cost can exceed 10,000 U.S. dollars.

Infection classification

Classified according to the site of infection, nosocomial infections may occur in various organs and parts of the body, which can be divided into:
Nosocomial infections of the respiratory system,
Nosocomial infection at the surgical site,
Nosocomial infections of the urinary system,
Nosocomial infection of the blood system,
Hospital infections of skin and soft tissues and so on.

According to the classification of pathogens, nosocomial infections can be divided into:
Bacterial infections,
Viral infection,
Fungal infections,
Mycoplasma infection,
Chlamydia infection and protozoan infection, etc.,
Among them, bacterial infections are the most common. Each type of infection can be classified according to the specific name of the pathogen, such as Coxsackie virus infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, Staphylococcus aureus infection and so on.

Classification by source of pathogen

  1. Endogenous infection: Also known as self-infection, it refers to a hospital infection that occurs when patients are attacked by their own inherent pathogens in the hospital caused by various reasons. Pathogens are usually the normal flora that reside in the patient’s body and are usually non-pathogenic. However, when the individual’s immune function is impaired, the health status is poor, or the resistance is reduced, it will become a conditional pathogen infection.
  2. Exogenous infection: also known as cross-infection, it refers to the infection that occurs when the patient is attacked by non-inherent pathogens in the hospital caused by various reasons. Pathogens come from individuals, environments, etc. outside the patient’s body. Including direct transmission from individual to individual and indirect infection caused by objects and the environment.

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