The normal use of the ECG monitor needs the correct analysis and operation of a professional. It is necessary to continuously sum up experience, and be careful, patient, and try to avoid human failure during use.

Classification of the patient monitor

Monitoring equipment can be divided into the following three categories according to the structure: portable monitors, general monitors, and telemetry monitors.
⑴ Portable monitor. The portable machine is relatively small and convenient to carry, simple in structure, stable in performance, can be carried around, and powered by a battery. It is generally used for monitoring in non-intensive care rooms and out-of-care patients.
⑵ General monitor. General monitors usually refer to bedside monitors. This type of model is more common and is widely used in hospital intensive care units and coronary care units. It often forms a system with a central monitor for monitoring.
⑶ Telemetry monitor. The telemetry method is wireless, suitable for patients who can move around.

According to the function classification, there are three types of bedside monitors, central monitors, and telemetry monitors.
⑴Bedside monitor. It is an instrument connected to the patient’s bedside which continuously detects various physiological parameters or certain states of the patient, and displays alarms or records. It can also be integrated with the central monitor for operating.
⑵ Central monitor. It can also be called a central monitoring system, which is composed of the main monitor and several bedside monitors. The main monitor can control the work of each bedside monitor and monitor the conditions of multiple subjects at the same time. One of the most important tasks of the central monitor is to complete the automatic recording of various abnormal physiological parameters.
⑶ Telemetry monitor. Generally, it is a small electronic monitor that the patient can carry around which can continuously monitor certain physiological parameters of the patient inside and outside the hospital for doctors to perform non-real-time inspections.

Monitoring methods and principles of physiological parameters


The electrocardiogram is a curve of changes in cardiac potential recorded from the body surface, which reflects the changes in biological potentials in the process of the generation, conduction, and recovery of cardiac excitement.
The figure below is a typical ECG waveform. Each complete ECG waveform contains 6 waveforms including P wave, Q wave, R wave, S wave, T wave, and U wave.

Leads of the ECG

Clinically, in order to unify and compare the obtained ECG waveforms, there are strict and unified regulations on the position and leads of the electrodes of the electrocardiogram connecting to the amplifier, which is generally called the lead of ECG.

Nowadays, the standard 12 leads are widely used, namely I, II, III, aVR, aVL, aVF, V1~V6. In general, there is no essential difference between the various leads, but the potential changes in the heart are reflected from different angles.

Standard connection of the ECG lead

Heart Rate

Heart rate refers to the number of heartbeats per minute. There are significant individual differences in the heart rate of normal adults at rest, with an average of about 75 beats per minute (between 60 and 100 beats per minute). Heart rate can vary with age, gender, and other physiological conditions. The heart rate of newborn babies is very fast, reaching more than 130 beats per minute. Among adults, the heart rate of women is generally slightly faster than that of men. In the same person, the heart rate slows down during rest or sleep, and the heart rate increases during exercise or emotional excitement. Under the influence of certain drugs or neurohumoral factors, the heart rate will increase or decrease. People who do physical labor and physical exercise often have a slower heart rate.

1. Respiration rate

Metabolic needs to keep the environment from the emission of carbon dioxide uptake of oxygen. This organism and the environment as a respiratory gas exchange. Includes respiratory (lung ventilation, ventilation), blood gas transport, breathe (organizational cells, and the blood capillaries exchange).

Normal range :  12-20BPM

2. Blood pressure

Blood pressure is the force of blood against the walls of arteries. Blood pressure is recorded as two numbers—the systolic pressure (as the heart beats) over the diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats). The measurement is written one above or before the other, with the systolic number on top and the diastolic number on the bottom.

Normal range: SYST  90-140mmHg,  DIAS  60-90mmHg

MEAN   is a cardiac cycle, the average

NIBP  (Non-invasive Blood Pressure ):

•Advantages:  simple, noninvasive,

•Shortcomings:  vulnerable peripheral arterial systolic and diastolic.

IBP  (Invasive Blood Pressure)

•Advantages: Direct measurement, data accuracy, and weaknesses the need for specialized equipment, the high technical demands, trauma, the applicability narrow, according to different positions, and into LAP left atria pressure, intracranial pressure ICP, arterial pressure ART).

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